The Global Road Safety Partnership has published a guide to the use of penalties to improve road safety. This guide provided direction on how a suite of penalties can be used to deter road users from behaviours that either cause or worsen road trauma. It will serve as reference for governments wanting to improve their penalty systems to maximise their impact on improving road safety. Penalties for traffic offences are a critical component of behaviour change techniques that have been used extensively with the aim of encouraging road users to comply with traffic laws and to use the road system safely. pdf5