The objective of this Diploma Thesis is to investigate for the first time the impact of economic, social and transport indicators on serious road injuries in the European Union. For this analysis αdatabase was developed containing key indicators on economy, road infrastructure, the characteristics of vehicle fleet and of their related traffic and of road accidents for the year 2015. Generalized Linear Models were developed correlating the number of serious road injuries and the severity of road accidents with the indicators considered. The models application lead to the conclusion that the percentage of passenger cars with Euro Ncap scores 5 stars has the most important impact and its increase leads to serious road injuries decrease. Moreover, the increase of the percentage of buses leads to significant decrease not only to the number of serious road injuries but also to the severity of road accidents.