This paper aims to investigate the impact of traffic safety culture elements on the probability of road crash involvement, focusing on traffic enforcement aspects.
Focus is on car drivers and motorcyclists in touristic and non-touristic areas in Greece. A questionnaire survey was conducted among car drivers and motorcycle riders in Athens and the on island of Rhodes. The survey included questions on background variables, national and local traffic safety culture (referring to the road user behaviours that respondents expect from other drivers in their own country or municipality), paternalism, experience of road safety enforcement, road risk attribution and previous involvement in road crashes. Five binary lo-gistic regression models were developed in an effort to find differentiations and common road safety culture elements between car drivers and motorcycle riders, but also drivers in Athens and drivers in Rhodes, in relation to road crash risk. Results indicate that drivers probably understand the importance of more inten-sive traffic enforcement as a means of traffic crash reduction; the development of a common traffic safety culture in the island of Rhodes in contrast to Athens and the importance of factors such as driving frequency, age and experience on traffic crash probability.