Historical road crash data are the main indicator for measuring road safety outcomes. Over the past few decades, significant efforts have been made in obtaining and exploiting Surrogate Safety Measures (SSMs). SSMs have the potential to provide excellent sustainable road safety indicators and proxy measurements which can complement traditional historical crash analyses or even substitute them. By using SSMs, crash data collection demands can be bypassed and areas can be investigated before crashes occur. Due to such advantages, the objective of the present research is to provide a review of the scientific literature regarding studies exploiting SSMs for historical crash record investigations. Specifically, 34 studies were examined, providing insights on the different types of SSMs collected under real road environment conditions, the way they are collected, their connection with specific road crash types, and the type of the developed statistical models are examined and discussed. Particular focus is also placed on the temporal dimension of the collection period of both SSMs and road crashes. Finally, the overall trends deriving from the reviewed studies are summarized and future research directions are provided.