The objective of this research is to examine and present the most critical parameters that can assess and predict the driving performance of individuals having some kind of cerebral disease. The cerebral diseases that have been studied are: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). For that purpose an extended literature review will be extracted in order to investigate the critical parameters which are examined in the scientific field of driving performance of drivers with brain pathologies. Methods of assessing driving, including on-road driving experiments, driving simulator experiments, neurological and neuropsychological tests etc., and related results of the literature will be assessed. Initially, the role of neurological and neuropsychological tests in assessing driving behaviour of patients with cerebral diseases will be examined. Then, the role of on-road assessments and the role of driving simulator experiments, in evaluating the driving performance will be thoroughly investigated. Τhe analysis of the driving performance of drivers with cerebral diseases may allow the identification of measures that can improve driving safety, such as restrictive measures, training and licensing, information campaigns, medical and neuropsychological monitoring.