The objective of this Diploma Thesis is the comparative road safety analysis in selected European capital cities, which will contribute to a better understanding of road accident causes in European megacities. A database was developed for this analysis containing data regarding the number and the characteristics of road fatalities, the population and other indicators of the nine selected European capital cities for the period 2007 – 2011. Multilevel Poisson statistical models were developed, allowing for a clearer picture of the hierarchical structure of road safety data, and they led to a more complete identification of factors affecting road safety level in the selected European capital cities, revealing new additional aspects of road safety performance in these cities. Factors found with a statistically significant impact concerned city characteristics (road network length, population density, public transport use) and accident characteristics (road user and vehicle type). The comparison between the European capital cities showed that the bigger the city’s road network is, the better the level of road safety is in this city.