The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current situation on urban road safety and of the future challenges with focus on urban safety and mobility in Europe, especially of the vulnerable road users. Results: Although urban road fatalities are constantly decreasing in the EU, during the last years, their share on total fatalities remains significant and increasing. In addition, trends in road fatalities vary considerably among the different European regions. Evidence based road safety decision making is a key component for the improvement of road safety in urban areas. However, several challenges related to data and knowledge need to be dealt with, including the various technical, political and international cooperation barriers preventing the assessment of road safety measures and their prioritisation. Conclusions: In the complex urban environment, a number of difficult road safety choices persist in order to balance conflicting social needs and economical restraints, especially during the economic crisis period. Urban road safety should be integrated into urban mobility plans, equally with environment, energy and mobility concerns, within a long term and sustainable vision. Both authorities and citizens should be supported by reliable scientific evidence and make the necessary brave choices with focus on slower traffic and car traffic restriction.