On the basis of the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the field of fire protection and rescue services in airports, the development of a methodology for the assessment of these services is attempted.   The proposed methodology concerns the organized and systematic identification of the existing situation (airport infrastructure, fire protection and rescue potential), the comparative assessment of the current situation in relation to the ICAO requirements and the formulation of a set of proposals of improvements and the related implementation plan.  The application of this methodology in the most important airports of Greece allowed the quantified assessment of fire protection and rescue services and led to the identification of the necessary actions for the improvement not only of the related airport infrastructure but also of the emergency procedures.