The paper presents the basic steps for the creation of the European Road Safety Observatory. More specifically, the relevant decision making framework in the EU is investigated and the current necessary availability data for the analysis of road accidents is examined and the subsystems of the European Road Safety Observatory are defined. Macroscopic data of road accidents, exposure (traffic etc.) and road safety performance indicators are investigated along with data from in-depth analysis of the causes of accidents and the relative injuries. Data analysis and publication through appropriate information systems is also examined. The overall approach in establishing the European Road Safety Observatory constitutes a decisive factor for its successful development and operation.