This paper aims to investigate the accident risk of passenger car drivers and two-wheeler riders in Greece. On that purpose the necessary detailed road accidents data for the calculation of accident risk rates were extracted from the National Road Accident Database of the National Statistical Service of Greece. At the same time, a nationwide survey was carried out, in order to collect traffic data for passenger car drivers and two-wheeler riders in Greece. A traffic database was then developed and the exposure of passenger car drivers and two-wheeler riders was estimated in relation to various driver (gender, age, driving experience), vehicle (vehicle type, vehicle age) and road network (area type) characteristics. Finally, the related accident risk rates were calculated, allowing for conclusions to be drawn for the examined driver categories, which contradict in several cases the general impressions created when examining absolute numbers of road accidents. The present research deals with important issues that up to recently limited the reliability of road accident analysis in Greece, allowing for useful accident risk rates to be estimated for the first time since 1985. Additionally, the results confirm the need for planning and establishment of a national system for the systematic collection of exposure data for road users in Greece, in order to determine and assess a more efficient road safety policy.