The focus of this paper is the presentation of measures favouring the environment and more specifically aiming at air pollution reduction in urban centres, in the framework of a more environmental friendly transport and traffic management. It has to be mentioned that these measures were proposed, among others, in the Strategic Plan for Air Pollution Reduction of the Ministry of the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works (MEPPPW). Initially an overview of air pollution problems in urban centres is provided in order to highlight the high correlation of these problems with the various transport/ traffic problems (deficiencies in strategic level transport planning, institutional and economic issues, transport infrastructure problems, management/operation problems). Past practices and measures for traffic related air pollution reduction are also presented. Finally, three new measures are proposed and analysed; measures that can be utilised towards the immediate improvement of air pollution generated by urban road trips. These measures involve traffic restrictions (The “Green” Ring Road) depending on the environmental impact of the vehicle engine, as well as pricing mechanisms (Environmental Road License Fees, various Environmental Charges of Road Traffic) based on the “polluter pays” principle.