Given that several regions of Greece and Turkey have higher road accident death rates than any other European region, the objective of this research is the exploration of the underline parameters, which contribute to this phenomenon. On that purpose, road accident fatalities are co-examined with basic macroscopic parameters affecting road safety, like population and vehicle fleet and lognormal models are developed for Greece, Turkey and three selected groups of EU countries. The application of the models developed showed clearly that not only the rapidly increasing motorization level in both countries but mainly the highly risky two-wheeler traffic constitute main contributing factors to the increased road fatality rates in the two countries. The proposed calculation of the dimensionless elasticity for each examined parameter was found as a simple but appropriate technique for the direct comparison of different cases of parameters and models. The results of this research could be proved beneficial for the identification of specific measures addressing the underlying road safety issues in Greece and Turkey, like the increased motorcycle traffic.