The objective of this research is to investigate and assess the efficiency of selected road safety measures, implemented in various EU countries, aiming at increasing the road safety level. Efficiency assessment process is based on the examination of several issues related to cost-benefit and cost-efficiency evaluation techniques for road safety measures, including methodological issues, data availability and quality, and identification of the most important barriers, through eighteen case-studies in nine countries. The main steps and data components needed to perform these evaluation techniques are presented, while the main results of evaluation techniques application are analysed. Conclusions concern both the efficiency of the measures and the assessment process. Furthermore, the main difficulties encountered in the above case studies and the alternatives for dealing with them are discussed. Analyses results revealed that efficiency assessment can facilitate decision-making related to road safety measures, but also the necessity for a common road safety efficiency assessment framework at international level.