Over the last two decades, digital technologies are constantly developed and new working methods have been arisen. Transport research community is following the path of open science, which concerns all stages of research process and consists of different elements. The objective of this study is to identify the challenges, opportunities and barriers of Open Science in transport research. On that purpose a Delphi survey was conducted for research community, industry and public authorities. The survey was held in two rounds aiming to achieve more robust results: in the first round, a questionnaire of 30 questions was disseminated to a panel of transport experts. The responses of the first round were collected and analysed. In the second round of the survey, the experts were asked to provide their final responses, by either confirming or adjusting their answers given in the first round. Based on the results of the Delphi survey, Open Science is considered as a key contributor in the advancement of transport research. From the side of the research community, the most important challenges that should be considered in order to adopt a policy closer to the principles of Open Science are the various legal and ethical restrictions as well as contractual restrictions from their partners. Among the barriers that research community should overcome to adopt an open data policy, there are the lack of resources, organizational issues and conflicts concerning data ownership/IPR. As far public authorities are concerned, open data are expected to improve their operations, foster data-based decisions and increase transparency, while for the private companies the reduction of the costs, the improvement of their customer services and the accessibility to more data are among the main benefits. However, conflicts regarding ownership/IPR, protection of commercial and personal data, and access to confidential data have been assessed as the most significant barriers.