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So far Eva Michelaraki has created 25 blog entries.
Author: Eva Michelaraki
The 2023 infographic of NTUA Road Safety Observatory (www.nrso.ntua.gr) highlights one more very intensive and highly fruitful year. The nrso scientific team with high dedication, efficiency and expertise continues to grow and excel, being active in 31 innovative research projects, succeeded to publish 49 scientific papers (23 in peer reviewed journals), and travelled around the world in hundreds of meetings to develop and promote road safety science. The 30 Marathons campaign for promoting 30km/h city-wide speed limit was also widely welcomed, contributing to the culture of calm and safe streets everywhere and for all.
The Transportation Research Board (TRB) organised with great success the 103rd Annual Meeting, which was held in Washington DC, on 7-11 January 2024. More than 600 workshops and sessions took place, covering all transportation modes and quite a few of them focussed on theory and practice of road safety worldwide. NTUA actively contributed with the following presentations and posters:
- Network-wide Road Safety Assessment: Methodology of the European Union
- Interactions between road environment and driver state for the identification of safety critical conditions
- Identifying the impact of Task Complexity and Coping Capacity on Driving Risk – Comparison among Different Countries and Transport Modes
- Leveraging Machine Learning Algorithms to Predict and Analyze Single-Vehicle and Multi-Vehicle Crash Occurrences on Motorways
Getting into 2024, we steadily progress in our scientific excellence quests with persistence, dedication and passion to promoting evidence based safe mobility everywhere and for all. For reaching the decade -50% target we need to further strengthen our individual and collective efforts to sincerely include traffic safety into the mobility agenda and start implementing the vision zero traffic fatalities.
Several cities worldwide have started setting speed limits of 30 km/h in large parts of the city. Brussels, Paris and Vienna have introduced city-wide 30km/h speed limits, mixing safely traffic of pedestrians, cyclists and motorised vehicles, with significant results in reducing road crashes, emissions and noise and upgrading city liveability. Within the 30 Marathons in 30 months campaign-challenge of Prof. George Yannis, a comprehensive set of resources on cities experiences with 30km/h speed limit is made available: georgeruns30x30.com/resources
The campaign-challenge of Prof. George Yannis running 30 Marathons in 30 months for 30km/h speed limit in all cities has been well presented in scientific conferences (IRTAD, Energy Save, ITF) and workshops (organized by TUM and NTUA) and disseminated thanks to the active support of International Organisations (ETSC, ECTRI, UITP, ERF, IRF), NTUA, Polish Road Safety Observatory and Runner Magazine. As Luca Pascotto mentions: “George showed me that when you combine your work with your personal passions, your can set ambitious target and find new motivation, involved the people around you”, while Abel Coentrão highlights that “George will ally with everyone who wishes to make the voice of 30km/h Cities as strong as possible, as soon as possible”. Launching public awareness campaigns and encouraging the use of public transport and active mobility could be proved beneficial for the adoption of 30 km/h speed limits in cities. Promoting city-wide 30km/h speed limit at the Media is available: https://georgeruns30x30.com/media
The International Road Traffic Safety Analysis and Data (IRTAD) Group and of the International Transport Forum (ITF) organised with great success the 36th Meeting which was held in Paris and online, on 8-9 November 2023. In this conference, the latest international road safety developments were discussed. 45 road safety experts enriched the discussion aimed to help improve road safety across the globe. Particular emphasis was given to new mobility and the evaluation of road safety measures. NTUA actively contributed with the following presentations:
The Horizon 2020 research project SHOW project (SHared automation Operating models for Worldwide adoption) organised with great success the 4th Pan-European Workshop, titled “Shaping Seamless AV Integration in Public Transport”, which was held in Düsseldorf, on 12 October 2023. The workshop provided a dynamic exploration of cutting-edge advancements in automated shared mobility, along with a field trip to nearby Monheim am Rhein to experience the real-life AV service fully integrated into public transport. The workshop combines concise presentations by industry leaders, experts, and project participants, followed by interactive panel discussions that delve deep into the heart of each topic.
The World Road Association – PIARC organised with great success two webinars which were held online on 5 and 15 September 2023, with the active support of NTUA. The topics of the Webinars were: Infrastructure, Tunnels, Speed, Data and Management, Behaviour, VRUs, Vehicles. The webinars provided solutions and recommendations to build road safety expertise in all countries with focus on Low and Middle Income Countries, in order to adopt effectively the Safe System Approach and reduce fatal and serious crashes on road network. NTUA actively contributed with the following presentation:
Dimitrios Nikolaou, NTUA PhD Candidate & Researcher, received the Young Researcher Best Paper on Road Safety Αward 2023 during the International Congress on Transport Research 2023. The Award is granted jointly by the Hellenic Institute of Transport (HIT/CERTH) and the Hellenic Institute of Transportation Engineers (HITE). The award concerned the paper is titled: “Spatial analysis of telematics surrogate safety measures across road environments”, co-authored by Armira Kontaxi, Apostolos Ziakopoulos and George Yannis.
The European Commission and the An Roinn Iompair (ARI) together with the European Transport Research Platforms ACARE, ALICE, CEDR, ECTP, ERRAC, ERTRAC, ETRA and Waterborne will organise the Transport Research Arena Conference (TRA2024) which will take place in Dublin, Ireland, on 15-18 April 2024. The pillars of the Conference will be the safe & inclusive transport, the sustainable mobility of people and goods, the efficient & resilient systems and the collaborative digitalisation regarding the European Transport Research and Innovation and the cooperation of Europe with other continents.
A paper titled “Real-Time Monitoring of Driver Distraction: State-of-the-art and future insights” authored by Eva Michelaraki, Chistos Katrakazas, Susanne Kaiser, Tom Brijs and George Yannis, has been published in Accident Analysis & Prevention. The aim of this research is to critically review and assess the state-of-the-art systems and platforms measuring driver distraction or inattention. The results indicated that real-time eye tracking systems, cardiac sensors on steering wheels, smartphone applications and cameras were the most frequent devices to monitor and detect driver distraction. On the other hand, less frequent and effective approaches included electrodes, hand magnetic rings and glasses.
A paper titled “Star rating of driver’s behavior as a tool to prevent risky behavior” authored by Milan Tešić, Suzana Miladić-Tešić, Katerina Folla, George Yannis and Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios has been published in Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Results were analysed regarding the following aspects: 1) star rating of driver’s behavior and 2) defining the stages of the periodic factors monitoring for each Police Administration Unit (PAU) examined. It was revelated that using a mobile phone while driving, not using child restraints system, alcohol drunk driving during the night and seat belt use at rear seats of passenger vehicles were identified as the most significant factors associated with risky driving behaviors.
A paper titled “COVID-19 and driving behavior: Which were the most crucial influencing factors” authored by Marios Sekadakis, Christos Katrakazas, Eva Michelaraki, Apostolos Ziakopoulos and George Yannis, has been published in Data Science for Transportation. Based on the collected data, XGBoost feature analysis algorithms were deployed to obtain the most significant factors. Results revealed that COVID-19 new cases and new fatalities were the most significant factors related to COVID-19 metrics impacting driving behavior. In addition, the correlation between driving behavior with other factors (i.e., distance traveled, mobile use, driving requests, and driving during risky hours) was revealed. Lastly, the differences and similarities of the harsh event rates between the two lockdown periods were identified.
The impact of cognition-affecting neurological diseases on reaction time and driving speed deviation, June 2023
A paper titled “The impact of cognition-affecting neurological diseases on reaction time and driving speed deviation” authored by Athina Diamanti, Apostolos Ziakopoulos and George Yannis, has been published in Open Transportation Journal. Analysis of cognitive impairments based on GDS questions showed that frequent ‘feelings of boredom’ correlated with a 7% increase in reaction time and a 8% increase in the standard deviation of driving speed. Conversely, ‘feelings of worthlessness’ reduced the standard deviation of driving speed by 4.5%. Drivers with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases showed higher reaction times, while drivers with depression and the control group showed lower reaction times. Drivers with Parkinson’s disease showed statistically fewer deviations of average speed. This research demonstrated that cognitively impaired individuals have larger reaction times and more erratic driving speeds.
A paper titled “A Review of Surrogate Safety Measures Uses in Historical Crash Investigations” authored by Dimitrios Nikolaou, Apostolos Ziakopoulos and George Yannis, has been published in Sustainability. On that purpose, 34 studies were examined, providing insights on the different types of SSMs collected under real road environment conditions, the way they are collected, their connection with specific road crash types, and the type of the developed statistical models are examined and discussed. Particular focus is also placed on the temporal dimension of the collection period of both SSMs and road crashes. Based on the classification performance metrics of the developed models, it was found that the Random Forests classifier outperformed the other developed classifiers in terms of predicting crash risk levels of the considered motorway segments.
The World Road Association – PIARC implemented an ambitious PIARC Knowledge Exchange project, aiming at sharing knowledge about road safety, with the active contribution of NTUA and AIT, especially within Low and Middle Income Countries with limited resources but also in more developed economies with different needs and priorities. The theme of this month refers to Speed, as presented by the PIARC Technical Committee 3.1 “Road Safety” member John Barrell. Throughout the year, PIARC will focus on the Safe System approach, addressing safe roads and roadsides, safe road users, safe vehicles and safe speeds.
From conflicts to crashes: Simulating macroscopic connected and automated driving vehicle safety, May 2023
A paper titled “From conflicts to crashes: Simulating macroscopic connected and automated driving vehicle safety” authored by Maria Oikonomou, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Amna Chaudhry, Pete Thomas and George Yannis, has been published in Accident Analysis & Prevention. Analysis of the outputs along with traffic data and network geometry characteristics were conducted. The results indicated that in higher Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) market penetration rates (MPRs), crash rates will be significantly lower as well as when the following-vehicle in the occurred conflict is a 2nd generation CAV.
The World Road Association – PIARC implemented an ambitious PIARC Knowledge Exchange project aiming at sharing knowledge about road safety, with the active contribution of NTUA and AIT, especially within the Low and Middle Income Countries with limited resources but also in more developed economies with different needs and priorities. The theme of this month refers to Vehicles, as presented by the PIARC Task Force 2.1 President Ana Luz Jiménez Ortega. Throughout the year, PIARC will focus on the Safe System approach, addressing safe roads and roadsides, safe road users, safe vehicles and safe speeds.
Driving behaviour in depression based on subjective evaluation and data from a driving simulator, April 2023
A paper titled “Driving behaviour in depression based on subjective evaluation and data from a driving simulator” authored by Vagioula Tsoutsi, Maria Papadakaki, George Yannis, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Maria Basta, Joannes Chliaoutakis and Dimitris Dikeos, has been published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The group of patients with depression did not differ from controls regarding driving behaviour as assessed through questionnaires; on the driving simulator, patients kept a longer safety distance. Results indicated that subjective fatigue was positively associated with aggression, dislike of driving, hazard monitoring and violations as assessed by questionnaires. It was revealed that, although certain symptoms of depression (insomnia, fatigue and somnolence) may affect driving performance, patients drive more carefully eliminating, thus, their impact.
The Horizon 2020 project i-DREAMS (smart Driver Environment Assessment and Monitoring System) released its 7th Newsletter, presenting the main accomplishments of the project, through creative solutions and risk mitigation strategies, exploiting state-of-the art findings on driver safety tolerance zone. The Newsletter presents the main results and the key findings from field trials and simulator experiments in Belgium, Germany, UK, Greece and Portugal and recommendations are also provided. The management approach, the communication and dissemination strategy as well as the ethical challenges tackled are presented through 37 deliverables, technical reports, interviews.
A paper titled “An Evaluation of the Passing Process through Road – Vehicle Parameters Assessment” authored by Stergios Mavromatis, Vassilios Matragos, Konstantinos Apostoleris, Fotios Fotos and George Yannis, has been published in European Transport Research Review. The methodology is based on a realistic representation of the passing task with respect to roadway’s posted speed and the ability of the passing (examined) vehicle to perform such maneuvers. The analysis revealed that the difference between the speed of the passed vehicle and the posted speed value, as well as certain interactions of the assessed parameters impact excessively passing sight distances (PSDs), especially for values below 20 km/h. The lognormal modelling approach for predicting PSDs was found efficient and may be useful to researchers and practitioners aiming to evaluate the interaction of the utilized road—vehicle parameters in terms of determining PSDs as well as passing zones.
A paper titled “Texting while driving: a literature review on driving simulator studies” authored by Gheorghe-Daniel Voinea, Razvan Boboc, Ioana-Diana Buzdugan, Csaba Antonya and George Yannis, has been published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The main findings revealed that texting while driving has negative effects on driving performance, affecting drivers’ divided attention and concentration, which can lead to potentially life-threatening traffic events. This review can serve as a basis for regulators and interested parties to propose restrictions related to using mobile phones in a vehicle and improve road safety.
The World Road Association – PIARC launched an ambitious PIARC Knowledge Exchange project aiming at sharing knowledge about road safety, with the active contribution of NTUA and AIT, especially within the Low and Middle Income Countries with limited resources but also in more developed economies with different needs and priorities. The general theme of this month refers to Boosting Road Safety, as presented by the Secretary General Patrick Mallejacq. Throughout the year, PIARC will focus on the Safe System approach, addressing safe roads and roadsides, safe road users, safe vehicles and safe speeds.
The 2022 infographic of NTUA Road Safety Observatory (www.nrso.ntua.gr) highlights one more very intensive and highly fruitful year. The nrso scientific team with high dedication, efficiency and expertise continues to grow and excel, being active in 33 innovative research projects, succeeded to publish a record number of 90 scientific papers (26 in peer reviewed journals), and travelled around the world in hundreds of meetings to develop and promote road safety science.
The Horizon 2020 project i-DREAMS (smart Driver Environment Assessment and Monitoring System) recently released its 6th Newsletter, presenting the main accomplishments of the project, through creative solutions and risk mitigation strategies, exploiting state-of-the art findings on driver safety tolerance zone. The Newsletter presents some insights in the first results and findings from field trials in Belgium and the UK are described. The first outcomes have been also presented to the User Advisory Board and Expert Advisory Board.